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Amino Acid




5-HTP crosses the blood-brain barrier and is the precursor to serotonin and melatonin.*

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  1. Shaw K, et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(1):CD003198.

Acetyl-L- carnitine

Derivative of L-carnitine, a compound that facilitates energy production in mitochondria and provides antioxidant protection.*

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  1. Gulcin I. Life Sci. 2006;78(8):803-11.
  2. Parnetti L, et al. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1992;42(1):89-93.
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Amino acid and major inhibitory neurotransmitter that crosses the blood-brain barrier and binds receptors that regulate temperature during sleep.*

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  1. Kawai N, et al. Amino Acids. 2012;42(6):2129-37.
  2. Kawai N, et al. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2015;40(6):1405-16.



L-DOPA crosses the blood-brain barrier and is the direct precursor to the neurotransmitter dopamine.*

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  1. Pardridge W. NeuroRx. 2005:2(1):3-14.


Amino acid precursor to histamine, a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system that has an important role in the release of pituitary hormones and wakefulness.*

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  1. Krystal A, et al. Sleep Med Rev. 2013;17(4):263-72.


Essential amino acid precursor to S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe), an important cofactor in the synthesis of the catecholamines.*

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  1. Duncan T, et al. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2013;57(4):628-36.
  2. Mischoulon D and Fava M. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76(5):1158S-61S.


Amino acid precursor to phenylethylamine (PEA) and the catecholamines dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine.

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  1. Ng J, et al. Nat Rev Neurol. 2015;11:567-84.


Amino acid that acts as a glutamate receptor antagonist.*

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  1. Kakuda T, et al. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2002;66(12):2683-6.


Essential amino acid precursor to serotonin and melatonin. L-tryptophan provides gentler conversion to serotonin compared to 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) as the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of serotonin is the conversion of L-tryptophan to 5-HTP.*

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  1. Birdsall T. Altern Med Rev. 1988;3(4):271-80.


Amino acid precursor to the catecholamines including dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine.

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  1. Ng J, et al. Nat Rev Neurol. 2015;11:567-84.


Precursor to L-cysteine.

L-cysteine is required for the synthesis of glutathione, an endogenous antioxidant.

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  1. Rushworth G and Megson I. Pharmacol Ther. 2014;141(2):150-9.
  2. Schmitt B, et al. Redox Biol. 2015;6:198-205.



SAMe is the universal methyl donor in the body involved in the methylation of neurotransmitters.*

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  1. Duncan T, et al. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2013;57(4):628-36.


Amino acid that demonstrates GABA-A agonist activity and protects neurons and mitochondria against glutamate-induced damage.*

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  1. Kletke O, et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(4):e61733.
  2. Ye H, et al. Can J Neurol Sci. 2013;40(5):628-34.


Potent methyl donating amino acid that acts similar to choline*

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  1. Olthof M, et al. J Nutr. 2003.



Apple cider vinegar

A naturally provided, nutritional, fermented vinegar that contains acetic acid to help balance the microbiota and supports immune health.*

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  1. Nat Prod Res. 2019 Mar;33(6):906-910.
  2. Yagnik D. et al 2018.

Banaba leaf extract

(Lagerstroemia speciosa)

Botanical that contains corosolic acid, a compound that selectively inhibits 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1), which is the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of cortisone into cortisol.*

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  1. Patel H, et al. Arabian Journal of Chemistry. 2015.
  2. Rollinger J, et al. Bioorg Med Chem. 2010;18(4):1507-15.

Cilantro leaf

(Coriandrum sativum)

Botanical peptide that promotes a balanced microbiota and supports liver detoxification.*

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  1. Zare-Shehneh M, et al. Int J Biosci. 2014;4(6):89-99.


Contains a variety of bioactive constituents that provide antioxidant support and inhibit the replication of microbes.* Research has shown elderberry may boost immune defenses against microbial agents and support healthy cytokine expression.*

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  1. Porter and Bode. Phytother Res. 2017;31(4):533-54.
  2. Ulbricht C, et al. J Diet Suppl. 2014;11(1):80-120.


(Coleus forskohlii)

Botanical that stimulates production of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), important for the activation of hormone-sensitive lipase, an enzyme that breaks down fat stores.*

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  1. Godard M, et al. Obes Res. 2005;13(8):1335-43.
  2. Jeukendrup A and Randell R. Obes Rev. 2011;12(10):841-51.

Ginkgo biloba extract

Consists of flavone glycosides, terpene trilactones (ginkgolides A, B, C), and ginkgolic acid (GA). Research shows constituents are involved in free radical scavenging, memory processing, and as antagonists of an immune activating mediator of the airways.*

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  1. Xia Shishi and Fang Dian-chun. Chin Med J 2007; 120(10):922—928.
  2. Stough C. et al. Int Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology. 2001; 4, 131-134. ; DeFeudis F.V. Elsevier. 1991.

Green tea leaf extract

(Camellia sinensis)

Botanical polyphenol in green tea that provides antioxidant protection through its ability to scavenge free radicals and metal ions.*

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  1. Legeay S, et al. Nutrients. 2015;7(7):5443-68.
  2. Teng Y and Wu D. Pharmacogn Mag. 2017;13(50):326-31.

Huperzine A

(Huperzia serrata)

Botanical compound that slows the breakdown of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase.*

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  1. Tun M and Herzon S. J Exp Pharmacol. 2012;4:113-23.

Lemon Balm leaf

(Melissa officinalis)

Botanical shown to inhibit the enzyme GABA transaminase in vitro which may increase levels of GABA in the brain.*

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  1. Awad R, et al. Phytother Res. 2009;23(8):1075-81.

Licorice root extract

(Glycyrrhiza glabra)

Botanical compound glycyrrhetinic acid (metabolite of glycyrrhizic acid) binds the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11β-HSD2) to inhibit the breakdown of cortisol.*

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  1. Chapman K, et al. Physiol Rev. 2013;93(3):1139-206.
  2. van Gelderen C, et al. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2000;19(8):434-9.


(Rhodiola rosea)

Botanical that is considered an adaptogen because of its ability to increase the body’s resistance to stressors.*

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  1. Legeay S, et al. Nutrients. 2015;7(7):5443-68.


(Curcuma longa)

Botanical shown to lower levels of TNF-α and IL-6; these cytokines that have a role in regulating the immune response and have been correlated with increased joint discomfort.*

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  1. Holdsworth S and Gan P. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2015;10(12):2243-54.
  2. Miller R, et al. Cytokine. 2014;70(2):185-93.
  3. Usharani P, et al. Drugs R D. 2008;9(4):243-50.

Valerian Root

(Valeriana officinalis)

Both in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate valerian extracts modulate GABA-A receptors. *

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  1. Benke D, et al. Neuropharmacology. 2009;56(1):174-81.
  2. Khom S, et al. Br J Pharmacol. 2010;161(1):65-78.
  3. Murphy K, et al. Phytomedicine. 2010;17:674-8.
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A mineral that is important for synaptic transmission in the nervous system.*

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  1. Sudhof T. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2012;4:a011353.


A mineral nutrient that serves as a cofactor in the action of insulin.*

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  1. Cefalu WT and Hu FB. Diabetes Care. 2004;27(11):2741-51.


5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid (5-MTHF)

Necessary vitamin in the development and regulation of the nervous system, including the synthesis of neurotransmitters.*

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  1. Antoniades C, et al. Circulation. 2006;114(11):1193-201.
  2. Mattson M and Shea T. Trends Neurosci. 2003;26(3):137-46.
  3. Stahl S. J Clin Psychiatry. 2008;69(9):1352-3.


Mineral found in the body that is important for neurotransmitter release and energy metabolism.*

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  1. Fawcett WJ, et al. Brit J Anaesth. 1999;83(2):302-20.


Essential metal that is important for energy metabolism and immune activity.*

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  1. Chen P, et al. J Neurochem. 2015;134:601-610.



Vitamin in its active form is important for the synthesis of neurotransmitters.*

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  1. Vrecko K, et al. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1997;1361(1):59-65.

Pantothenic acid


Involved in the synthesis of neurotransmitters and is the precursor to coenzyme A (CoA), an essential coenzyme for energy production and hormone synthesis.*

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  1. Ragaller V, et al. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2011;95(1):6-16.

Vitamin A

Fat-soluble vitamin important for retinal health, bone growth, and wound healing.*

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  1. Duerbeck N and Dowling D. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2012;67(2):122-8.

Vitamin B6

This vitamin is an essential cofactor in the synthesis of neurotransmitters.*

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  1. Martin D. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 1987;7(3):237-53.

Vitamin B12

This vitamin is essential in the development and function of the nervous system and the formation of neurotransmitters.*

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  1. Bottiglieri T. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2013;36(1):1-13.

Vitamin B12 (Riboflavin)

Essential for coenzyme cofactor for MTHFR and MTRR, supporting healthy homocysteine levels.*

  1. McNulty et al. 2006.

Vitamin C

This vitamin acts as an essential cofactor in the synthesis of neurotransmitters.*

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  1. May J, et al. Brain Res Bull. 2013;90:35-42.

Vitamin D

Promotes antimicrobial peptide creation, immune cell migration to sites of immune activation, and elimination of foreign material that trigger an immune response.*

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  1. Siddiqui M, et al. Nutrients. 2020;;12(9):2879.

Vitamin E

Mixed tocopherols are a fat-soluble blend of vitamin E isoforms that are antioxidants with free radical scavenging properties.*

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  1. Mathur P, et al. Clin Cardiol. 2015;38(9):570-6.

Vitamin K

Fat-soluble vitamin required for protein biosynthesis and enzymatic processes important for blood coagulation, cell growth, and bone formation.*

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  1. Hartley L, et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;9:CD011148.


Micronutrient that helps to comprise selenoproteins; these proteins are crucial for brain function and for enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase.*

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  1. Rayman MP. Lancet. 2012;379:1256-69.


Essential micronutrient that is important for synaptic plasticity and is commonly found within neurons in the cerebral cortex.*

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  1. Frederickson CJ, et al. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2005;6:449-462.

Zinc carnosine

Chelated compound of zinc and L-carnosine. Research shows benefits to gut mucosal lining, epithelial tissue, and liver health.*

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  1. Hewlings S and Kalman D. Nutrients. 2020 Mar; 12(3): 665.





Cholinergic compound that is a precursor to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.*

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  1. Ueland P. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2011;34(1):3-15.

Alpha-lipoic acid

Antioxidant that is able to chelate metals, regenerate endogenous antioxidants, and scavenge free radicals.*

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  1. Rochette L, et al. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2015;93(12):1021-7.


A fat-soluble carotenoid with unique cell membrane activity, antioxidant properties, and neuroprotective effects.*

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  1. Wu H, et al. Mar Drugs. 2015;13(9):5750-66.

Beta glucan

Beta-1,3 and beta-1,6 glucan contain conserved patterns recognized by the immune system, which primes the body for an effective immune response to microbial challenges. Research has shown beta glucans may reduce upper respiratory symptoms and improve mood states in stressed individuals.*

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  1. De Marco Castro E, et al. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2021;65(1):e1901071.
  2. Talbott and Talbott. J Am Coll Nutr. 2012;31(4):295-300.

Coenzyme Q10


Compound found in nearly every human cell that is essential for mitochondrial function and antioxidant protection.*

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  1. Garrido-Maraver J, et al. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2014;19:619-33.

Digestive Enzymes

Enzymes that break down common food macromolecules such as proteins, starches, lactose, and lipids in order to improve absorption during digestion.*

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  1. Tortora, G. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology. 14thed. 2014


Antioxidant and hormone important for the regulation of the sleep-wake cycle.*

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  1. Pandi-Perumal S, et al. Prog Neurobiol. 2008;85(3):225-53.


Component of cell membranes important for receptor-mediated interactions; phosphatidylserine is thought to interact with cell membranes in order to dampen hypothalamic signaling and regulate the stress response.*

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  1. Glade M and Smith K. Nutrition. 2015;31(6):781-6.
  2. Monteleone P, et al. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1992;41:385-8.


Living microorganisms that populate the gut to help support gut function, balance immune activity, and improve neurotransmitter synthesis.*

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  1. Brain Res. 2018 Aug 15;1693(Pt B):128-133.
  2. Di Cerbo A, et al. J Clin Pathol. 2016;69(3):187-203.
  3. Therap Adv Gastroenterol. 2013 Jul; 6(4): 295–308.



Polyphenol antioxidant that supports blood sugar management.*

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  1. Brasnyo P, et al. Br J Nutr. 2011;106(3):383-9
  2. Magyar K, et al. Clin Hemorheol Microcirc. 2012;50(3):179-87.