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Amino Acid

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5-HTP

5-hydroxytryptophan

5-HTP crosses the blood-brain barrier and is the precursor to serotonin and melatonin.*

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  1. Shaw K, et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(1):CD003198.

Acetyl-L- carnitine

Derivative of L-carnitine, a compound that facilitates energy production in mitochondria and provides antioxidant protection.*

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  1. Gulcin I. Life Sci. 2006;78(8):803-11.
  2. Parnetti L, et al. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1992;42(1):89-93.
  3. Pekala J, et al. Curr Drug Metab. 2011;12(7):667-78.


Glycine

Amino acid and major inhibitory neurotransmitter that crosses the blood-brain barrier and binds receptors that regulate temperature during sleep.*

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  1. Kawai N, et al. Amino Acids. 2012;42(6):2129-37.
  2. Kawai N, et al. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2015;40(6):1405-16.

L-cysteine

L-cysteine is required for the synthesis of glutathione, an endogenous antioxidant important for mediating oxidative stress.*

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  1. Schmitt B, et al. Redox Biol. 2015;6:198-205.

L-DOPA

L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine

L-DOPA crosses the blood-brain barrier and is the direct precursor to the neurotransmitter dopamine.*

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  1. Pardridge W. NeuroRx. 2005:2(1):3-14.

L-histidine

Amino acid precursor to histamine, a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system that has an important role in the release of pituitary hormones and wakefulness.*

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  1. Krystal A, et al. Sleep Med Rev. 2013;17(4):263-72.

L-methionine

Essential amino acid precursor to S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe), an important cofactor in the synthesis of the catecholamines.*

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  1. Duncan T, et al. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2013;57(4):628-36.
  2. Mischoulon D and Fava M. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76(5):1158S-61S.

L-phenylalanine

Amino acid precursor to phenylethylamine (PEA) and the catecholamines dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine.

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  1. Ng J, et al. Nat Rev Neurol. 2015;11:567-84.

L-theanine

Amino acid that acts as a glutamate receptor antagonist.*

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  1. Kakuda T, et al. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2002;66(12):2683-6.

L-tryptophan

Essential amino acid precursor to serotonin and melatonin. L-tryptophan provides gentler conversion to serotonin compared to 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) as the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of serotonin is the conversion of L-tryptophan to 5-HTP.*

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  1. Birdsall T. Altern Med Rev. 1988;3(4):271-80.

L-tyrosine

Amino acid precursor to the catecholamines including dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine.

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  1. Ng J, et al. Nat Rev Neurol. 2015;11:567-84.

N-acetyl-L-cysteine

Precursor to L-cysteine.

L-cysteine is required for the synthesis of glutathione, an endogenous antioxidant.

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  1. Rushworth G and Megson I. Pharmacol Ther. 2014;141(2):150-9.
  2. Schmitt B, et al. Redox Biol. 2015;6:198-205.

SAMe

(S-adenosyl-L-methionine)

SAMe is the universal methyl donor in the body involved in the methylation of neurotransmitters.*

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  1. Duncan T, et al. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2013;57(4):628-36.

Taurine

Amino acid that demonstrates GABA-A agonist activity and protects neurons and mitochondria against glutamate-induced damage*

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  1. Kletke O, et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(4):e61733.
  2. Ye H, et al. Can J Neurol Sci. 2013;40(5):628-34.

Botanical

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Ashwagandha

(Withania somnifera)

Botanical with serotonergic activity and the ability to help support a healthy stress response.*

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  1. Auddy B, et al. J Am Neutraceut Assoc. 2008;11:50-56.
  2. Kaurav B, et al. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2012;5(5):380-4.

Bacopa monnieri

(Bacopa monnieri)

Botanical that demonstrates neuroprotective and adaptogenic effects, increases cerebral blood flow, and attenuates depletions in neurotransmitters in vivo.*

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  1. Kamkaew N, et al. Phytother Res. 2013;27(1):135-8.
  2. Liu X, et al. Restor Neurol Neurosci. 2013;31(2):109-23.
  3. Rastogi M, et al. Biogerontology. 2012;13(2):183-95.
  4. Sheikh N, et al. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;111(3):671-6.

Banaba leaf extract

(Lagerstroemia speciosa)

Botanical that contains corosolic acid, a compound that selectively inhibits 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1), which is the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of cortisone into cortisol.*

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  1. Patel H, et al. Arabian Journal of Chemistry. 2015.
  2. Rollinger J, et al. Bioorg Med Chem. 2010;18(4):1507-15.

Black cohosh

(Actaea spp.)

Botanical with GABAergic, serotonergic, and potentially selective estrogenic activity.*

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  1. Jarry H, et al. Maturitas. 2003;44 Suppl 1:S31-8.
  2. Wuttke W, et al. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2014;139:302-10.

Blueberry fruit extract

(Vaccinium spp.)

Botanical that contains anthocyanins, which are flavonoid compounds that have strong antioxidant properties shown to increase levels of brain-derived neurotropic factor.*

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  1. Rendeiro C, et al. PLoS One. 2013; 8(5):e63535.
  2. Yousuf B, et al. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2016;56(13):2223-30. 


Boswellia serrata

(Boswellia serrata)

Botanical that contains boswellic acids, compounds shown to inhibit 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), an enzyme responsible for the synthesis of immunostimulatory molecules called leukotrienes.*

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  1. Radmark O, et al. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015;1851(4):331-9.
  2. Schweizer S, et al. J Nat Prod. 2000;63:1058-61.

Forskolin

(Coleus forskohlii)

Botanical that stimulates production of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), important for the activation of hormone-sensitive lipase, an enzyme that breaks down fat stores.*

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  1. Godard M, et al. Obes Res. 2005;13(8):1335-43.
  2. Jeukendrup A and Randell R. Obes Rev. 2011;12(10):841-51.

Green tea leaf extract

(Camellia sinensis)

Botanical polyphenol in green tea that provides antioxidant protection through its ability to scavenge free radicals and metal ions.*

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  1. Legeay S, et al. Nutrients. 2015;7(7):5443-68.
  2. Teng Y and Wu D. Pharmacogn Mag. 2017;13(50):326-31.

Huperzine A

(Huperzia serrata)

Botanical compound that slows the breakdown of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase.*

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  1. Tun M and Herzon S. J Exp Pharmacol. 2012;4:113-23.

Licorice root extract

(Glycyrrhiza glabra)

Botanical compound glycyrrhetinic acid (metabolite of glycyrrhizic acid) binds the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11β-HSD2) to inhibit the breakdown of cortisol.*

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  1. Chapman K, et al. Physiol Rev. 2013;93(3):1139-206.
  2. van Gelderen C, et al. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2000;19(8):434-9.

Rhodiola

(Rhodiola rosea)

Botanical that is considered an adaptogen because of its ability to increases the body’s resistance to stressors.*

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  1. Legeay S, et al. Nutrients. 2015;7(7):5443-68.

Sceletium

(Sceletium tortuosum)

Botanical that is a dual inhibitor of phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE-4) and serotonin transporters.*

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  1. Harvey A, et al. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;137(3):1124-9.

Turmeric

(Curcuma longa)

Botanical shown to lower levels of TNF-α and IL-6; these cytokines that have a role in regulating the immune response and have been correlated with increased joint discomfort.*

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  1. Holdsworth S and Gan P. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2015;10(12):2243-54.
  2. Miller R, et al. Cytokine. 2014;70(2):185-93.
  3. Usharani P, et al. Drugs R D. 2008;9(4):243-50.

Vitamin/Mineral

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Calcium

A mineral that is important for synaptic transmission in the nervous system.*

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  1. Sudhof T. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2012;4:a011353.

Chromium

A mineral nutrient that serves as a cofactor in the action of insulin.*

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  1. Cefalu WT and Hu FB. Diabetes Care. 2004;27(11):2741-51.

Folate

5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid (5-MTHF)

Necessary vitamin in the development and regulation of the nervous system, including the synthesis of neurotransmitters.*

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  1. Antoniades C, et al. Circulation. 2006;114(11):1193-201.
  2. Mattson M and Shea T. Trends Neurosci. 2003;26(3):137-46.
  3. Stahl S. J Clin Psychiatry. 2008;69(9):1352-3.

Magnesium

Mineral found in the body that is important for neurotransmitter release and energy metabolism.*

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  1. Fawcett WJ, et al. Brit J Anaesth. 1999;83(2):302-20.

Manganese

Essential metal that is important for energy metabolism and immune activity.*

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  1. Chen P, et al. J Neurochem. 2015;134:601-610.

Niacin

B3

Vitamin in its active form is important for the synthesis of neurotransmitters.*

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  1. Vrecko K, et al. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1997;1361(1):59-65.

Pantothenic acid

B5

Involved in the synthesis of neurotransmitters and is the precursor to coenzyme A (CoA), an essential coenzyme for energy production and hormone synthesis.*

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  1. Ragaller V, et al. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2011;95(1):6-16.

Vitamin A

Fat-soluble vitamin important for retinal health, bone growth, and wound healing.*

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  1. Duerbeck N and Dowling D. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2012;67(2):122-8.

Vitamin B6

This vitamin is an essential cofactor in the synthesis of neurotransmitters.*

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  1. Martin D. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 1987;7(3):237-53.

Vitamin B12

This vitamin is essential in the development and function of the nervous system and the formation of neurotransmitters.*

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  1. Bottiglieri T. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2013;36(1):1-13.

Vitamin C

This vitamin acts as an essential cofactor in the synthesis of neurotransmitters.*

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  1. May J, et al. Brain Res Bull. 2013;90:35-42.

Vitamin D

Fat-soluble vitamin that plays an important role in bone and immune health.*

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  1. Prietl B, et al. Nutrients. 2013;5(7):2502-21.

Vitamin E

Mixed tocopherols are a fat-soluble blend of vitamin E isoforms that are antioxidants with free radical scavenging properties.*

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  1. Mathur P, et al. Clin Cardiol. 2015;38(9):570-6.

Vitamin K

Fat-soluble vitamin required for protein biosynthesis and enzymatic processes important for blood coagulation, cell growth, and bone formation.*

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  1. Hartley L, et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;9:CD011148.

Selenium

Micronutrient that helps to comprise selenoproteins; these proteins are crucial for brain function and for enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase.*

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  1. Rayman MP. Lancet. 2012;379:1256-69.

Zinc

Essential micronutrient that is important for synaptic plasticity and is commonly found within neurons in the cerebral cortex.*

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  1. Frederickson CJ, et al. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2005;6:449-462.

Other

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Alpha-GPC

Alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine

Cholinergic compound that is a precursor to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.*

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  1. Ueland P. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2011;34(1):3-15.

Alpha-lipoic acid

Antioxidant that is able to chelate metals, regenerate endogenous antioxidants, and scavenge free radicals.*

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  1. Rochette L, et al. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2015;93(12):1021-7.

Choline

Acetylcholine precursor and an essential nutrient important for cellular health, methylation, and lipid metabolism.*

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  1. Ueland P. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2011;34(1):3-15.
  2. Wallace J, et al. Br J Nutr. 2012;108(7):1264-71.
  3. Zeisel S. Nutrition. 2000;16(7-8):669-71.

Coenzyme Q10

(CoQ10)

Compound found in nearly every human cell that is essential for mitochondrial function and antioxidant protection.*

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  1. Garrido-Maraver J, et al. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2014;19:619-33.

Melatonin

Hormone important for the regulation of the sleep-wake cycle.*

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  1. Pandi-Perumal S, et al. Prog Neurobiol. 2008;85(3):225-53.

Omega-3s

These macronutrients are essential components of neuronal and retinal tissues.

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  1. Swanson D, et al. Adv Nutr. 2012;3(1):1-7.

Phosphatidylserine

Component of cell membranes important for receptor-mediated interactions; phosphatidylserine is thought to interact with cell membranes in order to dampen hypothalamic signaling and regulate the stress response.*

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  1. Glade M and Smith K. Nutrition. 2015;31(6):781-6.
  2. Monteleone P, et al. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1992;41:385-8.