Combining Alpha-GPC, Acetyl-L-carnatine, and Huperzia serrata, Avipaxin contains efficacious ingredients designed to support healthy cognitive and immune functions through acetylcholine support.* Acetylcholine ties together immune function with cognitive health through its vital roles in the peripheral and central nervous systems. Avipaxin’s unique blend demonstrates proven immune regulation with quality ingredients that support cognitive function.*
Healthy Cognitive Aging
As individuals age, they may experience psychological changes in areas like memory, language, visuospatial abilities, and executive functions.1 These changes, known as “cognitive aging,” are natural processes and may demonstrate diverging progressions. For example, memory and executive function are known to decline with age, but knowledge accumulation and vocabulary may improve.2,3
While cognitive aging is a normal part of aging, it may interfere with daily activities. For instance, studies show cognitive aging can influence complex functional tasks like driving a car.4 Other less complex functional challenges include recalling a name, downloading and using a smart phone app, or preparing a meal from a recipe.3 The vulnerability many older adults face poses a larger concern, especially regarding fraud and financial abuse. In 2010 alone, older adults who were victims of financial abuse lost an estimated 2.9 billion dollars.3 Additionally, the U.S. Census Bureau estimates that the population of adults over the age of 65 will double from 40.2 million in 2010 to 88.5 million in 2050. Clearly, older adults experiencing cognitive aging poses major health and economic challenges in the coming decades.5
With these economic and individual challenges, it is natural that people would seek support for cognitive aging. Avipaxin is designed with ingredients to support acetylcholine and has been proven to reduce inflammatory cytokines to improve overall quality of life.28* Understanding the mechanism behind acetylcholine’s role in cognition and immune function helps provide the groundwork for the importance of each ingredient in Avipaxin.*
Immune and Cognitive Connection
The peripheral immune system affects the central nervous system through several pathways. Cytokines released in the periphery can (1) diffuse through circumventricular organs, (2) bind and activate receptors on the blood-brain barrier, (3) transport across the blood-brain barrier through an energy-dependent process, and (4) activate vagal afferent nerve fibers. These all lead to microglial-dependent changes in the central immune system.10-13 Additionally, these changes influence cognition by affecting cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in synaptic plasticity and activity of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF).14 Accordingly, studies have shown a direct association between peripheral immune markers and cognition. For example, a 10-year longitudinal analysis following 5,217 participants between the ages of 45-69 found that reasoning and scoring on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) decreased with high serum IL-6 levels.15
Acetylcholine and Avipaxin
Since its discovery, acetylcholine (ACh) has received a tremendous amount of attention in research. As the most abundant neurotransmitter found in the human body, it plays important roles in both the peripheral and central nervous systems. Peripherally, ACh is found in neuromuscular junctions (synapse between the motor neurons and muscle) and stimulates muscle contraction when released. Centrally, it behaves as a neuromodulator (effects the actions of other neurons). Overall, ACh is crucial in helping control behaviors like motivation, attention, and cognition.6-8
In the early 1980s, Bartus and colleagues created the “cholinergic hypothesis,” which theorized the importance of ACh in cognition.9 They had observed that changes in cholinergic activity were correlated to cognitive changes in healthy older adults. Since then, this hypothesis has been supported by the finding that the use of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors supports healthy cognitive function.
To help support ACh, Avipaxin contains Huperzine A (an alkaloid from the Chinese botanical Huperzia serrata).* This botanical is a potent, highly specific, and reversible AChE inhibitor.17* In vitro and in vivo comparative data demonstrate that huperzine A has more potent inhibitory properties than other molecules.18 Additionally, huperzine A demonstrates superior inhibition of the G4 form of AChE, which is found primarily in mammalian brains.18 Additionally, Avipaxin contains acetyl-L-carnitine and alpha-GPC, two ingredients that both contain precursors essential for acetylcholine synthesis.23,24*
All three of the ingredients in Avipaxin are delivered at amounts that have been shown to promote healthy cognition (Table: Acetylcholine and Cognition).* Additionally, Avipaxin’s unique proprietary blend has been shown to lower serum cytokine expression.* Eleven healthy subjects, 6 female and 5 male, ages 25-45 years, supplemented with Avipaxin for 7 days. They took 1 serving twice daily and adhered to a specific schedule including controlled diet, specific “Acetylcholine Product” ingestion, and serum specimen collection. All specimen samples were analyzed by Pharmasan Labs, Inc. (Osceola, WI, USA). Statistical analysis was performed using the one-tailed t-test on the means of paired samples comparing data.
Significant decreases were seen after 1 week for IL-1 β (p=0.0088), IL-6 (p=0.0302), IL-8 (p=0.0259), IL-12 (p=0.0103), IL-17 (p=0.0086), and TNF-α (p=0.0227), when compared to Hour 0 serum specimens collected on Day 1 (Figure 1).28* Subjects reported feeling fine/normal, more clear-headed, awake/alert, having good energy, less frequent headaches, energy and focus without caffeine, more mental energy, and waking feeling refreshed.28* No significant changes in heart rate variability were found compared to baseline.
Cognitive aging is a natural process that currently affects tens of millions of Americans. This process can impact daily activities and be frustrating for the affected. Since both acetylcholine and the immune system play a major role in cognitive health, Avipaxin contains clinically effective ingredients to support healthy cognition by impacting acetylcholine and cholinergic function in the body.25-27* Furthermore, Avipaxin’s unique blend has been shown in humans to support a healthy immune system by lowering immunostimulatory cytokines.28* Although cognitive aging naturally occurs to many individuals, Avipaxin can support neurotransmitters effecting the process.*